In industry, synthetic membranes are used for pressure and concentration gradients. The membrane process is called filtration. Synthetic membranes used in the separation process may be of different shapes. They can also be categorized based on the application and separating process.
The best known synthetic membrane separation processes include water purification, reverse osmosis and dehydrogenation of natural gas. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration are specialized types of synthetic membranes used for removal of cell particles. Microfiltration membranes are used in the removal of microorganisms from dairy products, as well as, human dialysis.